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HARMONY, THE PRINCIPLE OF KEJAWï¿½N
Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana Salatiga
Harmony is the basic principle that must be held firmly by the Javanese in order to carry out its role as the image of God. When this basic principle is forgotten, reinforced by the increasingly rampant greed, the interrelationship between humans and the relationship between human and the universe becomes impaired. In such conditions, humans and other creatures who must bear the misery which is resulting from disasters that arose.
By the time a baby is born, the family rejoiced. But rarely are asked from where did he/she come? Does the answer is quite simply the result of fertilization of a female cells by male cells? Similarly, when someone dies, the family is grieving. Most people claim that one day the death will be encountered as well. The question arises then is where the journey after death? This is the beginning and the central issues of spirituality studies Kejawï¿½n, sangkan paraning dumadi, the origin and purpose of creation (Pramujiono, 2010). This old song is not clear who the author, the Dhandhanggula song which content is as follows,
Saking pundi kawitanï¿½ nguni
Manungsa, kutu, walang, antaga
Kang gumelar ngalam kiyï¿½
Sayekti kabï¿½h iku
Mesthi ana ingkang nganani
Yï¿½ku kang akarya jagad
Ingkang Maha Agung
Iku kang dadi sangkannya
Iya iku ingkang dadi paranï¿½ki
Sagunging kang dumadya
Freely translated as follows,
From where did initially in the first
Humans, fleas, grasshoppers, crickets
That exists in this world
Indeed all of it
There must be creator
Namely that created the universe
God the Supreme Majesty
That is the origin
He is also our purpose
Everything that is created
The song is interesting, because it describes the origin and purpose of creation. The interests to understanding the origin and purpose of creation is to establish intact personal of Javanese, which realizes the principles of life in this world (Anonim, 2011).
CONFLICT OF APPROACHES
There are three sources of consciousness that can be extracted to studying the origin and purpose of creation. First, awareness of kawruh, that is knowledge derived from the ecological environment sights. This environment can be learned from the relationships in the jagad alit ï¿½ that is human relationships in the kinship, ethnicity, and nationality; and relationships in the jagad ageng ï¿½ that human’s relationship with the environment of the universe in which a person‘s life. Awareness about the origin and purpose of creation at the level kawruh just understood that human and other creatures living because of fertilization or pollination of female cells by male cells, so that the name of human beings, animals, or plants that exist. It is also understood that creation have a life cycle: birth – teens – young – married – breed – dead. Kawruh who study the life cycle of this is biology, especially in the Theory of Genetics. In addition, through the Theory of Evolution also learned about the stages of human development from the stage of the simplest to the most recent stage in the framework of the survival of the fittest (Semangun, et al, 2010). Kawruh also studied the relationships among the people include anthropology, sociology, economics, political science, education science, and others. Kawruh also developed to study the relationship between humans and other creatures, such as ecology, astronomy, and others.
But before developing kawruh, ngï¿½lmu is already studied by Javanese. Ngï¿½lmu is knowledge derived from studying the spirituality of the invisible. This spirituality is derived from efforts to cultivate an inner sensitivity, which the Javanese referred to as rasa. In connection with this, some people connecting the rasa with the cipta and karsa (Anonim, 2009). Cipta is a reason to understand, and karsa is the desire to seek an understanding of the origin and purpose of creation. The key is in a rasa, the level of awareness of the human mind to be able to understand the origins and purpose of his life in this world. If rasa does not exists, then the cipta will not work because there is no karsa to understand the origin and purpose of creation. The word rasa is often interchanged with rahsa which means the seed of life, and rahsya that means occult, hidden, and secret (Mulder, 1996: 23).
Throughout the life, rasa is growing from one stage to the higher stages, depending on the ability of each person to develop it. The earliest stage is rasa panginderan, namely a sense that can be understood by using the five senses. But in its development, there are other rasa that grows in man, namely rasa kapribadï¿½n. Rasa kapribadï¿½n is personal taste want to set our self as the center of attention. The more mature the growing rasa kasusilan. Rasa kasusilan is the sense of involving beautiful and not beautiful, likes and dislikes, worthy and unworthy, as well as the correct and incorrect in attitude and behavior. Final stage is rasa sejati, is sense of awareness of the origin and purpose of creation (Sabdalangit, 2011).
Departing from rasa sejati, the song showed confidence of Javanese, that in fact everything must be created. The creator of the heavens and the earth is called the Lord of Creator. There are various names given to God by the human. For the Javanese there are two names that are considered most appropriate to be used interchangeably, namely Gusti and Pangï¿½ran. Gusti means God, who is worshiped. Meanwhile Pangï¿½ran is paran pangï¿½ngï¿½ran, the direction of self-devotion. For Javanese, Gusti or Pangï¿½ran that is recognized as the Essence of the Almighty, worthy of worship, to whom we surrender completely (Cebolang, 2008).
Awareness of the existence of God was originally derived from ngï¿½lmu (Notohamidjojo, 2011: 109). However, in line with the introduction of religion – which is then designated as the official religion by the government, then it progressing ngï¿½lmi awareness, namely knowledge derived from religiosity. When someone embrace a particular religion, whatever its religion, they began to learn about faith and spirituality to worship the Almighty God. In every religion is taught also about origin and purpose of creation although by way of disclosure varies by each religiosity. Actually ngï¿½lmi can strengthen kawruh and ngï¿½lmu in the search for human identity and the relationship with God the Almighty. But when religion was passed by the government, and mysticism are not recognized, then ngï¿½lmi serve as the sole source of truth.
As a result, on the one hand create conflict between truth of ngï¿½lmi and the truth of kawruh. Scopes Trial Cases in the United States in 1925, when a biology teacher was fined by a court decision because he teaches the Theory of Evolution is considered against the Bible, is an example of conflict of ngï¿½lmi and kawruh (Semangun, et al, 2010: 8). In other hand ngï¿½lmi also has erodes ngï¿½lmu, and mysticism is seen as a cult, or even worse regarded as superstitious and infidels (Sabdalangit, 2010; Anonim, 2009; Cebolang, 2008). In such instances, the presence of ngï¿½lmi instead of revitalizing ngï¿½lmu and kawruh, but reduces it. During the conflict between the three approaches were not resolved, it is difficult to produce a synergy that is capable of understanding the origin and purpose of creation. The generosity of official religious leaders is required to accept ngï¿½lmu and kawruh also as a source of truth of faith.
There are at least three reasons ngï¿½lmi also need the truth of ngï¿½lmu and kawruh. First, no single human can understand exactly who God is, unless God reveals himself. That means there is no point to say that one approach is more correct than others. Second, it must realize that the tribe, along with kinship and nationality, is a natural identity. God-given identity is fair for everyone, including the Javanese. While religion is an artificial identity built by them self (Samad, 2010). So, artificial identity should not undermine the natural identity, but should reinforce it as the thanksgiving to God. Third, the official religion has a written text, while the Kejawï¿½n do not have it. On the other hand the Kejawï¿½n have context of spirituality that embraced the Javanese society, which is not owned by official religion. So, religiosity and spirituality will complete each other.
The song above also explains that the Creator is origins and purpose of every creature, including humans. Humans and the universe with all its contents were created by God the Creator. He created all creatures perfectly. In some official religion taught that creation takes place within seven days. But it must be understood as the Lord’s days, not as a humanï¿½s days. One day of the Lord can be understood as millions of years of the human days. Thus the process of creation could be accepted as consistent with research that was built in the Evolution Theory. Now we no longer need to debate the truth of ngï¿½lmi and the truth of kawruh, as both are complementary.
For the Javanese, it is recognized that man was created with a higher degree than other creatures, and not created as typically. If the other creatures were created only by word, man is created with the work. Hand of God formed man and breathed the breath of life to him. This is why humans have a higher degree than other creatures. Humans have a body, to distinguish with other beings created without form. Humans have souls, to distinguish the other soulless creatures. Human was created also with the spirit, to distinguish the living from the instinctive creation. The three dimensions – namely the body, the soul, and the spirit, united in human becomes a single person, which in the Javanese language called tri-purusa. The three dimensions must be maintained so that human dignity is not degenerate like other creatures.
The trinity awareness is states that human is the image of God (imago Dei, Latin). Notohamidjojo (2011: 122) revealed that as the image of God, human beings have the following main characteristics:
a. He is a noble creature who sinned;
b. He was blessed with the freedom to take responsibility for divine norms.
As God’s image means that human is not God. The human is only the creation, which the Lord blessed with dignity. As a noble creature, given to him by God the freedom to be responsible. Take the glory, and take their freedom, the human becomes no more than a sinner who can not be responsible. That means in order for humans could be responsible to God he must defend their nobleness and keep each other their freedom. When the human lowered the degree of humanity, and when human negates the freedom of other human beings, then humans would not be able to be responsible to God.
As Godï¿½s image, they must responsible for keeping and maintaining the sustainability of the universe. Humans must ensure that the universe is not damaged, and other creations remain stable. Human failure to maintain the integrity of the universe and the preservation of other creatures, is a failure as the image of God. Also they must realize that the Creator is not only human origins, but also the goal of human devotion. The temporary life in this world would be continued to the age of eternity, and the human were going to face the Creator. As the image of God then they must aware his responsibilities to the Creator. That is why efforts to preserve the universe, is actually an integral part concept of Kejawï¿½n. This concept is called Monism (Zoetmulder, 1991; Notohamidjojo, 2011).
In concept of Monism, the universe is seen as a totality is perfect. Each creation is determined by its position in the universe, in order to set according to the classification system. Relation among the human must reflects the relation of human with universe. He does not stand alone outside of totality, but are called to live in harmony with the universe. Human reason in the position is to think how wisely to maintain a harmony relationship with the universe (Notohamidjojo, 2011: 506). Preservation of the universe that can be protected if the balance of relations in the universe and the relation of human could be maintained. The consciousness is encourages Javanese people to keep and maintain balance relationships in the universe and the relationship among the human (Pramujiono, 2010: 216). Even because human were given high power above the rest of creation, but as an integral part of the universe, he must still tried to realize the balance of the relationship to be maintained.
Awareness about the have to maintain balance on the Javanese did not come suddenly. The realization is obtained through a long process. In the beginning, from the study kawruh emerging awareness that if there is a balance in the relationships will create harmony. In the event of balance would result in serene and peaceful atmosphere. However, in case exist of an imbalance in the relationships in the human and the universe, a lack of the harmony then lead to discomfort and lack of peace. Departing from the understanding of kawruh, the question arises how and why the balance and the harmony could happen?
To answer that problem, the Javanese is looking for in the consciousness of ngï¿½lmu. He is looking for with develop an inner sense through his relationship with God. That is why the known habits of the Javanese are meditate or pray ï¿½ the Javanese say sembah Hyang. In Serat Wedhatama, on the first song Gambuh stanza, KGPAA Mangkunegara IV taught about the worship of God,
Samengko ingsun tutur
Sembah catur supaya lumuntur
Dingin raga, cipta, jiwa, rasa kaki
Ing kono lamun tinemu
Tandha nugrahaning Manon
Freely translated as follows,
Now I give advice
About the four types of worships
Worships of the body, mind, soul, and sense
If it were found
Sign of God’s gifts
From the song at the top there are four types of worship to God, namely worship of body, worship of mind, worship of soul, and worship of sense.
Worship of body is to worship God with maintaining healthy body by cleanse our self with water use. Clear water is not only for ablution, but also for bathing and drinking. By keeping the body clean and sufficient drinking the body will be clean from all kinds of diseases, so the solemn prayer could be done. Worship of mind is to worship God by purifying themselves through reducing the passions, in order to establish quiet intellectual (eneng), net of personal interest (ening), and remember the commandments of God (ï¿½ling) to eliminate the sense of sadness.
Worship of soul is an effort to purify the soul by binding tightly and covering Three Realms, namely the universe of body, mind, and soul, for introspection where the will of the soul, the direction of thought, and action are not in accordance with the will of God. Sin must be acknowledged, regretted, and repented not to be done anymore. This is by KGPAA Mangkunegara IV referred to as the universe rolled by the human, which mean the lust of worldly is erased by repentance.
While the worship of sense, namely the worship of God by purify the sense only by genuine faith. Worship can take place if it put lives entirely on the will of God, understood that God is the source of life, and let all his life guided by the Holy Spirit. This is the meaning of the unity of servants and God (manunggaling kawula Gusti). At this level there is only a sense of love for God. Sincere devotion to God, lost of anxious, and willing to suffer to obey the will of God. Love of God is realized by building a wonderful relationship with fellow human beings with a living patiently, forgiving, cherish, and cultivate a sense of excitement in the hearts of others. Also maintaining a harmonious relationship with the keeping and maintaining of other creatures.
DUALISM, ITS IMPACT ON HARMONY
When western culture introduced into Indonesia, particularly to Java, has brought another concept, namely Dualism. Dualism is a concept that puts the human apart from the universe. As a result of such separation, then humans can exploit the universe arbitrarily, for the benefit of mankind (Notohamidjojo, 2011: 507). It is followed by the massive exploitation to the universe, and environmental damage is becoming increasingly severe. This environmental damage has upset the balance and harmony of human’s relationship with the universe.
For example, when introduced green revolution in Indonesia, artificial fertilizers, different types of herbicides, fungicides, insecticides and other are used, as well as the use of quality seeds. As a result of the use of artificial fertilizers resulting imbalance occurs in soil nutrients. Similarly, the use of agricultural drugs that cause various types of predators go die together with plant pests. The use of the quality seeds that can not be prepared by the farmers themselves, makes the farmers depending on the market. Research shows that as a result the farmers prefer to sell paddy in the paddy field rather than they reaping their own. Result of changes in farmer’s decision is changing harvesting technology of using ani-ani to the sickle, so that the employment of labor was reduced drastically from 200 to 16 people per hectare.
The condition is getting worse when human greed follows the concept dualism. As an example of logging occurs arbitrarily, so much forest that became bald. The extensive environment damage has impact on the human life in the form of various natural disasters, such as erosion, flooding, landslides, and others. Replacement the multi plants with single plants, such as oil palm plantations, coffee plantations, teak plantations, and others, resulting in destruction of habitat for animals and poultry. Loss of habitat has resulting extinction of certain species of animals and poultry. In some areas the wild beasts and elephants enter into residential areas and damage the plant population. There was hostility between humans and animals, as each tried to get his needs on the same land. This suggests that the balance of the universe has also been disrupted.
On the other hand the separation of the position of human and the universe has impact to the relationship between humans themselves. As a result of the emergence of exploitative consciousness that has led to a growing greed in people lives, balance and harmony in human relationships to be broken and disappear. Man has become the wild beast for other human. The strong exploit the weak. Ruling party are controls to the mass that do not have power. Consequently there are those who exist and there are those who alienated from social relationships. Formed a separate social structure, developing, and cause problems in social life. Emerging the economic problem in the form of the rich and the poor; appear politically ruling class and oppressed groups, and other social class structure. Form of community interaction that is mutual assistance has been replaced by the interaction which is based on interest.
This illustration shows that the need to return and adopt Monism which is understood of Kejawï¿½n, the original concept of the Javanese society, and release back the concept of dualism that does not correspond with the living of Javanese society. These changes are necessary to restructure the balance and harmony in the relationships among the human and relationships between the human and the universe. Kejawï¿½n studies not only to unite the concepts of inter-religious and between spiritual movement in Kejawï¿½n own spirituality, but also needed to raise awareness that keeping and maintaining balance and harmony among the human relations and in relation between human and the universe is the sole responsibility of the Javanese in the front of Gusti Pangï¿½ran, the Creator of this universe, the origin and purpose of creation.
Study of Kejawï¿½n focused on the origin and purpose of creation. The problems which want to be studied by the people are whether its role during in the world and to whom he must take responsibility for his role. In order to learn the problems, there are three approaches that can be used, namely the approach of kawruh, approach of ngï¿½lmu, and approach of ngï¿½lmi. These three approaches complement each other, so no need an approach to be contrasted with other approaches. The three approaches are needed to be used to complement each other, so as to obtain a thorough understanding to answer the question of the origin and purpose of creation.
It is recognized that man was created with a higher degree than other creatures, because human is the image of God. They must responsible to God for keeping and maintaining the sustainability of the universe. According to their responsibility, human must be aware with the position in the classification system in the universe. They did not stand alone outside of totality, but they must live in harmony with the universe. Harmony is happened if humans are able to unite themselves with God.
Nowadays grew the concept which is in contrary with the concept of Kejawï¿½n. Humans put themselves apart from the universe, and could exploit the universe by arbitrarily. When greed grows in the human heart, the exploitation of the universe became unmanageable again. As a result relationships of the human and the universe became damaged, and even interrelationships among the human also became chaotic. The destruction of this relationship has given rise to various adverse effects faced by the human himself. That’s why now is growing awareness to return to the concept of Kejawï¿½n, by placing the harmony as a principle in daily life.
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